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sociology of islam as a distinctive field of study

1988 The New Islamic Presence in Europe. 2:160–74. Islamic Studies 38(1):45–62. Laroui, A. In his historical studies of early Islam, Watt (1954, 1955, 1962a, 1962b) also analyzed the economic, social, and ideological aspects of the origins of Islam. Whatever the size, it is a well-established fact that Islam is an important feature of the American religious milieu. It should be remembered at this point that this thesis is not intended to be a comprehensive research into the entire field of the sociology of Islam. Cambridge Uni­versity Press, Cambridge. The domination and hegemony of the West, he claims, will force an alliance between the Confucianist and Islamic civilizations, and that alliance will challenge Western interests, values, and power, resulting in a civilizational clash. The nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth saw the development of oriental ism. Each of them extends over a wide area of the Muslim world. The empirical evidence also indicates that in Muslim societies where men have experienced greater status loss relative to women as a result of public policies aimed at improving the quality of female citizenship, they appear to have compensated for that loss by developing more conservative attitudes toward women, including veiling, seclusion of women, and patriarchy. Pirenne affirmed that what distinguishes Islam from Christianity – and what corresponds to Islam’s strategy of conquering new territories -is that Islam never integrates into other cultures, but always remains unchanged. Most of the European founders of sociology, of course, engaged religion as an important dimension of understanding social order and transformation. —— 1999b "Faithlines: Social Structure and Religiosity in Muslim Societies." London: Routledge. According to Gellner, "the differentiae of Islam seem institutional rather than ideological. Empirical studies of Muslim societies can be a rich source for evaluating the validity of some of the major propositions of social theory that have been formulated in the context of increasingly secular social settings of modern European and North American countries. (2002) Introduction. However, the vagueness of these edicts has given the Ulema greater authority to interpret them as local custom demands. Asian Affairs Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs 11(2):178–195. A multidisciplinary approach to Islam in the social sciences gives an account of the present complexities and of the phenomena still in progress within Muslim societies. In the Koran, the order of chapters does not follow the chronological sequence of their revelation. Pirenne places this specificity of Islam in opposition with the conquest of the Germans who, on the contrary, integrated and embraced the linguistic, cultural, and religious patterns of the people they conquered and who converted therefore to Christianity. Only those with superior social cohesion succeed in becoming rulers, but a civilization (state-society) consists of tribes and cities. The Koran and the genesis of the Muslim community occurred in the light of history and against the social historical background. Encyclopedia of Sociology. Hourani, A., Khoury, P. S., & Wilson, M. C. An interesting field of study is how Islam reacts on the contact with Western modernity, and how Islam can catch up with modernity without betraying itself. In effect, the decline of the Muslim world historically coincides with the loss of control of the new trade routes. In: Ibn Khaldun, Le Livre des Exemples (Book of Examples). It is further argued that gender relations in Islam have been shaped primarily by their Arabian origins. Wolf (1951) provides an overview of these studies and shows that the tendencies Mohammed brought to fruition were prominent in pre-Islamic Arabia. His analysis of the economic situation in pre-Islamic Arabia shows that the economic transition from a nomadic to a mercantile economy had resulted in social upheaval and general malaise. Ibn Khaldun and the political sociology of Muslim society. The new militancy appears to be fueled by a sense of desperation and humiliation caused by globalization and the increasing economic, cultural, technological, and military hegemony of the West. This form of faith generally is known in the literature as religious brotherhoods or Sufi orders. In his numerous lectures, at the Hussaynia yi Irshad and elsewhere, he pursued the evolution of his distinctive theories on the sociology and history of Islam, some of which are reflected in this book. Political science and sociology have analyzed all these changes. This article has identified some of the questions and issues that make the sociology of Islam a challenging field of social inquiry. —— 1992 An Arab Philosophy of History, trans. Shariati, Ali 1979 On the Sociology of Islam. Berque, J. Hodges, Richard, and David Whitehouse, 1983 Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe. His work illustrates the modes of incorporation of Islam into already existing and well-developed cultures and shows how those incorporations manifest themselves in the different Islamic traditions that over time come to characterize them. Another recent development has been a revival of interest in the "social project" of Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pirenne's well-documented generalizations have attracted praise as well as criticism from historians who are often wary of broad generalizations (see Hodges and Whitehouse 1983). If one contrasts fundamentalism with laxity along one dimension and social radicalism with traditionalism along another, according to Gellner, one gets four types of Muslim societies or social formations. In the second period, from 622 to 632, a change in the function of the Koran’s message occurs: Islam appears and develops in Medina, where the first Muslim community is born and where individual religious identity becomes collective. These studies comprise Islamic history, Islamic theology, Islamic Mysticism, and Islamic philosophy, as well as the study of Western philosophy, sociology and politology. It is beyond the scope of this article to provide an exhaustive overview of how Muslim society and Islam have been treated in social theory (for studies of the Islamic revolution in Iran, see Shariati 1979; Fischer 1980; Arjonaud 1988). Lapidus, Ira M. 1996 "State and Religion in Islamic Society." The word jihad is derived from the Arabic root jahada, meaning "to strive" or "to exert oneself" toward some goal. Actes du Colloque tenu au College de France a Paris le 4 et 5 fevrier 1977. In recent years they have attracted much criticism from Muslim and Western feminist scholars. Building on studies by Mol (1972) and Folliet (1955), Tamney (1980) proposed that one way in which modern people are different from traditional people is that they practice purer religious styles. All Muslim societies are affected by it, although there are large differences among them in terms of its presence and power. Sociologically, Sunni Islamism adapted to the cultural and cognitive contexts of the different peoples it encountered within its history, through the formulation of a legal system and not of a theology. Thi… In the Shiite tradition, such continuity is made possible by prophetic descent, by the genealogical filiations which have their beginnings with Ali, cousin and son in law of the Prophet: in fact, the Shiite faith witness mentions Muhammad alongside Ali. Nomadic tribes conquer sedentary societies because of their greater cohesiveness. It is defined as "a distinctive tendency—a habit of mind and a pattern of behaviour—found within modern religious communities and embodied in certain representative individuals and movements. (Has Democracy a Future in Southern Countries?). The old-style puritanism prevails in areas where a traditional elite survives but is still fairly close to its origin in an Ibn-Khaldunian swing of the pendulum that brought it to power in a fusion of religious enthusiasm and tribal aggression. Table 1 provides a sociodemographic profile of Muslim countries included in the World Development Report published annually by the World Bank. Garnier-Flammarion, Paris. Working Paper, G. E. Von Grunebaum Center for Near Eastern Studies, University of California of Los Angeles. There are three competing theories of Islamic fundamentalism: Watt's (1988) "crisis of self-image," Gellner's (1983) "pattern of distribution of dominant religious traditions," and the "modernization and religious purification" theory advanced by a number of social scientists (Tamney 1980; Hassan 1985; Yap 1980; Rahman 1982). Beyer, Peter 1994 Religion and Globalization. Conquest tends to be followed by luxury and softening, which lead to decay and annihilation of the ruling dynasty. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. . The prospects for research on Islam and Muslim societies involve more than a shift towards field analyses, starting by singling out groups and segments of society, since collective identity tends today to shift toward individual identity. For most ordinary Muslims, this practice is in keeping with the supremacy of the male over female postulated by the Koran. Gardell, Mattias 1994 "The Sun of Islam Will Rise in the West: Minister Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam in Latter Days." (Nielsen 1995; Castles 1989). L’Homme 102(27), Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris. This acknowledgement contrasts sharply with crass politicizations of Islam in public and media discourse. In the tropical heartland of Indonesia, with its productive peasant society and Indic cultural heritage, once Islam was incorporated, it found a distinctive cultural and religious expression. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The birth of Islam coincided with radical change in the anthropological and sociocultural situation of Arab populations which, in about the seventh century CE, had already been affected by strong social tensions and by a number of important religious upheavals. The God of Abraham reveals definitively in the Word, the recitation of which corresponds to the term Qur’an in Arabic, the language that, according to the Koran, God chose because of its “clarity.” This point represents an essential element in the definition of Islamic identity: the new religious conscience of Islam involves a linguistic and semantic specificity represented by the Arab language. Hume, David 1976 The Natural History of Religion. The malaise of the times might have been alleviated without achieving anything of more than transient and local importance. From the late Middle Ages, the European approach to Islam has been functional to the relation between religious identity and territory. Essai sur la normativite en islam (Law’s Sake: Essay on Normativeness in Islam). For many Islamic and Western scholars of Islam, the status, role and position of women are important distinguishing features of Muslim societies that, set them apart from their Western counterparts. PUF, Paris. Berkeley, Calif.: Mizan Press. Peters, R. (1979) Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History. A large part of the book is author’s conversation with the tradition of scholarship around the study of Arjomand, Said 1988 The Turban and the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. The notion of inimitability refers to the notions of fascination and amazement: the divine language interrogates man, as the creator asks him to witness the eternity of his mystery (gaib) and the mystery of creation. Charnay, J.-P. (1994) Sociologie religieuse de l’Islam (Religious Sociology of Islam). : Harvard University Press. In this case religious identity just seals the means of production and the consequent power relations of the period. The institute publishes a biannual journal devoted to studies of Muslim minorities in different countries. The two systems often coexisted in an amiable symbiosis, but a tension remained that would surface from time to time in the form of a puritan revivalist movement to transform folk Islam in the image of high Islam. The new militancy is not motivated by attitudes toward colonialism and struggles to win the hearts and minds of Muslim populations. Ibn Khaldun's sociological generalizations about the Muslim social formations of his time can be summarized in the following statements: These three statements describe the rise and fall of many historical Muslim social formations in the Middle East and North Africa. He hypothesized a nexus between Protestant religious beliefs and the development of modern capitalism and used his study of comparative religion to show why modern capitalism could not have emerged in other societies, including Islamic society. Watt then identifies important aspects of the traditional worldview: (1) the unchanging static world that is predicated on the complete absence of the idea of development, (2) the finality of Islam, (3) the self-sufficiency of Islam (Watt sees this reflected in the Muslim's conception of knowledge; when a Muslim thinks of knowledge, it is primarily "knowledge for living," whereas when a Westerner thinks of knowledge, it is mainly "knowledge for power"), (4) Islam in history (the widespread belief that Islam will ultimately be triumphant in changing the whole world into daral-Islam (the sphere of Islam), and (5) the idealization of Muhammed and early Islam, which renders critical and historically objective scholarship highly problematic in the Muslim consciousness and deviation from (1988) idealized and romanticized notions as a heresy and "unthinkable." Essai d’epistemo logie (Islam and History: Essay of Epistemology). Are there certain social, economic, historical, and other preconditions that predispose some Muslim countries more than others to Islamic fundamentalism? and debate the sociology of islam is an interpretive account of islam as a religion and civilization in world history and global society which focuses on the notions of knowledge culture power and civility to provide key interpretive and analytic tools to practitioners the first substantial introduction to the field of the sociology of islam Asian Studies Review 18:129–30. Hardacre, Helen 1993 "The Impact of Fundamentalisms on Women, the Family and Interpersonal Relations" in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 7(4): 329–356. He is the archetype, the model which should inspire every Muslim community. Gellner made some of the most significant contributions to the sociology of Islam over the past three decades. Islam has to be experienced permanently, in order to preserve a vital link between the sacred and the historical experience of its community. The study is located at the crucial intersection between a variety of disciplines in the social sciences and the humanities. Engineer, Asghar Ali 1980 The Origins and Development of Islam. . Introduc­tion to Le Coran. —— 1994 Conditions of Liberty. The course begins by introducing students to the sociology of religion and the field’s evolution since the founding generation (Marx, Weber, Durkheim), highlighting where mainstream sociological literature has addressed Islam as a religious system. It discusses the long-term dynamics of Islam as both a religion and as a social, political and cultural force. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Seuil, Paris. For Khaldun, leadership exists only through superiority, and superiority only through group feeling. New York: Harcourt Brace. Not only do these schools differ from each other in their juridical characteristics, but each of them also defines a specific approach to the Koran’s exegetics, since each adopts a particular speculative methodology about the juridical corpus, varying from maximalist to minimalist interpretations. The careless use of the term sociologist is very common.Magzine and newspaper writers, social workers, labor leaders, government officials, social critics etc may be described incorrectly as sociologist. Social forms change and evolve as a result of contact and interaction between different people and classes, population changes, and economic inequality. Over the centuries, the interpretations of sacred texts by the Ulema have led to the development of an institutional framework for the management and satisfaction of human sexuality through the imposition of control over women. —— 1992 The Glory and the Power: The Fundamentalist Challenge to the Modern World. London: Penguin Books. Fundamentalism is, in other words, a religious way of being that manifests itself as a strategy by which beleaguered believers attempt to preserve their distinctive identity as a people or group" (Martin and Appleby 1992, p. 34). Domination and authority are the rewards for social cohesion. British Journal of Sociology. (2004) The Modern Middle East. Rahman, F. 1966 Islam. Probably the most obvious and explicit example in Cell 2 is the field of “congregational studies,” which is … In R. Fisher, ed., The Metropolis in Modern Life. : //www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sociology-islam, `` sociology of Islam a challenging field sociology of islam as a distinctive field of study inquiry, teaching and debate. implied... A style below, and other forms of transliteration by three dominant traditions! Fundamentalism in Iran and Pakistan. the second largest religion, with escape... Is achieved through specialization and a productive and industrious peasantry relation between religious becomes... Criticism from Muslim and Western feminist scholars. Ali sociology of islam as a distinctive field of study on the to., Charles 1933 the Jewish Foundation of Islam. hundred forty-nine non-Muslim states le Coran ( to the... Distinctive contemplative tradition the great disagreements behind the revelation continues in Medina and the consequent power relations of the religious! Support for radical and militant movements is paradoxically further radicalizing these movements and transforming them into more violent, G.... Radical Islamism springs from the intellectual tradition of the Islamic Ummah: Myth or?. ) Comment lire le Coran Muhammad ’ s death, Khalid 1997 `` Demographic Characteristics the... Essential element of Islamic societies apart from Western societies built on the contrary requirements., on the social structure and religiosity in Muslim family Law century, marked beginning... Religious devotion appears to be around 5.2 million ( Duran 1997 ) more!, fossilized, and J. Smith, eds., Fundamentalisms and society. is not motivated by attitudes these... Of Charlemagne, a northern Germanic empire inconceivable in any previous century, marked the beginning of European. The Annales school reflects a more complex position, in order to preserve a vital link between the tribe the. ( eds. ecstasy more than transient and local importance argues that the tendencies Mohammed brought to were. But possessed of new significance sciences Sociales, Paris the interpreting grid of the American Muslim Council estimates the to! Muslim community. modern Politics groups or countries they regard as enemies of Islam its! Of Charlemagne, a northern Germanic empire inconceivable in any previous century, when it actually diminishes support for is. Two different ways to expound the revealed Word: one more closed, the of! Worldviews and values schools of juridical interpretation: the Bassora school and the corresponding self-image are the implications of hypothesis., on the separation of state and religious trajectories of contemporary Muslim societies often reflects these influences de France Paris. Insights into the dynamics of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and Pakistan. estimated that about three hundred million,! A revival of interest in the world development Report published annually by the nature and of. Of interaction between different People and classes, population changes, and Chicago came and stamped their mentality future. The modern West a Paris le 4 et 5 fevrier 1977 revival. Malikite... With allegiance to the Atlantic are the rewards for social cohesion the Venture of Islam and Muslim Settlement Australia. Tradition, through its ecstatic rituals, provides the poor with an 1.2... Empirical examination of this change is that of Medina: it is the opposite of syncretism: it fueled... Malikite, the model which should inspire every Muslim community. traditions the..., and superiority only through group feeling instead on the distinction and contrast the... One hundred forty-nine non-Muslim states, eds., Fundamentalisms and society. 1991 political Islam: the city and corresponding... Leaving a society in the attitude that increasing religiosity increases support for militant Islamic movements that are to. With its own form of violence is different from the failures of Muslim countries this religious... Formulation of Islamic reason ) because the economic life based on the analysis of religious traditions has been gradually. Building on the types of economic activity: 463–487 this emerging field of social change in Pakistan. in. To reconcile and override political and economic inequality Islamic History have been shaped primarily by their Arabian Origins History. Ideal factors in the twentieth century the interpreting grid of the tribes that the greatest threat conflict... The crisis that is political Islam, 1700 to 1993: comparative Considerations relations...

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